Sunday, September 3, 2023

History of National Socialism in America Part 1 - Pre WWII, by Karl Haemers - The Unz Review


National Socialism as a political, social, cultural, racial and spiritual ideology began to be applied in Germany in the early 1920s. It came to leadership of that nation first with the appointment of Adolf Hitler to Chancellor on January 30, 1933, but more fully after the German parliament the Reichstag’s vote of 82% for the Law of Plenary Powers (termed informally the Enabling Act) seven weeks later on March 24. The National Socialist German Labour Party (NSDAP. I use the translation in Leon DeGrelle’s book Hitler Democrat[1]), which referred to it as The Law to Rescue the German People From Poverty and Misery, was granted full leadership of the nation by the other parties, excluding their own political parties from influence. The rest, as we say, is history widely distorted by almost 90 years of primarily Jewish ongoing war propaganda and atrocity stories.

Also on March 24, International Jews immediately announced an economic holy war against Germany, in the form of an international boycott of German export goods.

After its success with the 1933 Law of Plenary Powers, the NSDAP announced a 4 Year Plan and began at once to enact it, offering every policy and program up for approval to the German people. Results quickly numbered above 90%.

National Socialism was not only popular in German, however. Strong movements arose in neighboring Austria, Belgium (in the form of the Rexist Party) and Britain. The City Council of Danzig, the contested city which was taken from Germany by the Treaty of Versailles and given to the jurisdiction of the League of Nations as a “free city”, and whose population was largely German, was majority National Socialist even before Germany was.

The United States also saw the rise of a strong National Socialist movement, which took a variety of political and social forms over decades of time to the present. We will attempt to incise through the anti-”Nazi” propaganda that prevailed at the time and still dominates the historiography today (which included labeling “isolationist” Congressman Charles Lindbergh a “Nazi sympathizer” for trying to keep the US out of the European war and naming Jews as pushing for US intervention) to present a clear view of National Socialism in America.

The Free Society of Teutonia

Significant numbers of Germans emigrated to the United States after World War I, escaping the miserable conditions of the Weimar period in their Fatherland (1919-32). The first organized groups in the US with National Socialist affiliations appeared as early as 1924. One began as the Free Society of Teutonia, founded by three German immigrant brothers Fritz, Peter and Andrew Gissibili in Chicago. It steadily gained members of ethnic Germans on a policy of nationalism, opposition to Jewish power, anti-communism and advocacy against the Treaty of Versailles. This of course was closely aligned with the platform of the still small but growing NSDAP in the home nation (dormant in 1924 since Hitler and other NSDAP leaders were in prison). It also organized social activities to bring German Americans together and retain some aspects of their native culture and identity.

The name changed in 1926 to the Nationalistic Society of Teutonia, and it expanded with offices in seven other major US cities. Treasurer Fritz Gissibli collected donations to support the NSDAP in Germany. This was affirmed when the FBI brought a sedition trial against the founding Gissibli brothers in 1943, as evidence showed that the Free Society of Teutonia raised money and sent it to Adolf Hitler in the Landsberg prison in 1924.[2] By 1932, soon before the appointment of Hitler as Chancellor of Germany, the group name changed again to Friends of the Hitler Movement. Immigrant National Socialist party member Heinz Spanknöbel dissolved the group in March 1933, and brought its members into a newly sanctioned group, Friend of New Germany.

Teutonia Society member Walter Kappe[3] deserves mention. He was fluent in English and went on to become Press Secretary for the much larger German American Bund, establishing numerous publications including one titled German Wake-Up Call and Observer (Deutscher Weckrufund Beobachter). He may have been a German-American equivalent of Willis Carto. Kappe served in the German war effort in the Abwehr II, special operations for German intelligence, arranging for small U-boat landings on the US east coast for surveillance and potential sabotage after the US declared war on Germany following Pearl Harbor.


Gau is a German word which means region or province. Gau USA was a National Socialist affiliated organization with offices in several US cities, said to be under the direction of the NSDAP in Germany. Its membership numbers and scope at the time is unclear today, but in 1933 after Hitler took the Chancellor office, Gau USA was disbanded and dissolved. Gau USA Detroit leader Heinz Spanknöbel journeyed to Germany and received approval to form a new German American National Socialist organization.[4]

Friends of New Germany

That organization became The Friends of New Germany. Deputy Führer Rudolf Hess had given authority to form the new group, and it absorbed former members of Teutonian and Gau while adding new members. Many were German veterans of World War I. A good summary comes from “American Bund, The Failure of American Nazism: The German-American Bund’s Attempt to Create an American ‘Fifth Column’” by Jim Bredemus.[5] This term “Fifth Column” derives from the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) and refers to a hostile enemy force hidden within a besieged city or region, prepared to attack from within. To attribute this to The Friends of New Germany is typical of the fear propaganda and war-mongering against Germans at the time and throughout the historical record. Bredemus can be more factual however: “…the Friends of New Germany was created with help from the German consul in New York City. The organization was based in New York but had a strong presence in Chicago.”

The organization existed into the mid-1930s, although it always remained small, with a membership of between 5,000-10,000. Mostly German citizens living in America and German emigrants who only recently had become citizens composed its ranks. The organization busied itself with verbal attacks against Jews, Communists and the Versailles Treaty. Until 1935 the organization was openly supported by the Third Reich, although soon Nazi officials realized the organization was doing more harm than good in America and in December 1935 Hess ordered that all German citizens leave the Friends of New Germany. All the group’s leaders were recalled to Germany.

Bredemus thinks and writes with typical anti-German bias, claiming members “stormed” a German language newspaper in New York with the “demand” that it publish “Nazi sympathetic” articles. More likely these German Americans sought an outlet for their genuine feelings of appreciation and even adoration for German National Socialism so hopeful in 1933 in their Fatherland, and tried to express it through the New Yorker Staats-Zeitung.

It is not surprising that the NSDAP chose to limit the Friends of New Germany in America, since in subsequent years Hitler reluctantly had to order the Austrian National Socialists, the National Socialists of Danzig, the German nationals living in French Alsace-Lorraine, the German nationals living in the Sudetenland Czechoslovakia, the German nationals in South Tyrol Italy, and other National Socialist enthusiasts outside Germany to subdue their activities and advocacy, so as not to alienate those nations with which Hitler and the NSDAP sought peace and alliance.[6] It is disappointing though, since Hitler wanted to welcome them back into the Third Reich Fatherland as part of the German family, and they passionately longed to return.

The Friends of New Germany were reluctant to disband, and surprisingly The Jewish Telegraphic Agency Archive posts a Jewish Daily Bulletin of April 30, 1933, titled “Local Nazis to Continue Propaganda; Kiep Sails After Talk to Hitlerites”. Key quotes reveal startling truths about National Socialism in both the US and Germany:

“Mystery surrounding the current activities of the ‘League of American Friends of New Germany’… deepened yesterday, as members announced that they would carry on to gain ‘a place in the sun’ for their fatherland.

“The German consulate had earlier in the week announced the dissolution of Nazi Party units in America, stating that the usefulness of the organization had ended with Hitler’s ascension to power in Germany.

“New York brown shirts have declared that the surrender of their present headquarters on May 1… does not mean the disruption of the organization. They state that activities will be immediately resumed at new premises…


“According to the statement of leaders of the local Nazi Party, their work is by no means completed. So long as Jewish persecution propaganda and other unfavorable publicity continues to be broadcast, they will deny inaccuracies in news bulletins, they state.

“Weekly meetings of the New York Nazi Party have not been cancelled, notwithstanding an order for their closing issued by Heinz Spanknöbel, chairman of the Nazi Party in the United States, shortly before his departure for Germany last Tuesday night. (It is said Spanknöbel was deported for failing to obtain US citizenship – KH.)

The consulate disclaims knowledge of reorganization of the Nazi Party in new headquarters.


“Activities of the Nazi Party in the United States include the coordination of various German ‘singing’ societies and sport clubs under the new Hitler regime and the dissemination of propaganda designed to gain the good will of foreign countries for the present German administration.

“Since the beginning of the Jewish persecution in Germany, the New York office of the Nazi Party has been the principal clearing house in the United States for tons of Hitler propaganda, printed in Germany as well as New York and Boston.

“New York Nazi chiefs stated yesterday that the demand for pamphlets and periodicals, which they are distributing here, has exceeded the supply.

“Members of the local Nazi Party unit have been delegated to speak before regular meetings of virtually every German social and commercial organization in the city. Party spokesmen state that they have been successful in winning the support of these groups for their leader, the German Chancellor.

“Friends of New Germany… are composed of both naturalized American and German citizens. Germans of monarchist political sentiments as well as those favoring the present republican form of government are included in the party. The society has been in existence for six years.


“No sooner had leaders of the Jewish community here got over their surprise at the announcement that Dr. Otto Kiep, Consul-General for Germany, had appeared on the platform of the Teutonia Hall meeting a week ago Saturday night in celebration of the 44th birthday of Chancellor Hitler, than news came that the Consul-General had sailed for Germany.

“Dr. Kiep has been a guest of honor at other functions of a similar nature (dinner celebrating Albert Einstein-KH), and has been understood to be a liberal and friend of the Jews.

“At the Teutonia Hall meeting, in which were represented officers and men of German steamers in port, the Stahlhelm organization here, the Eagle and the Falcon, American Friends of Germany, the Order of German Youth and the Sons of Italy, a pro-Fascist organization, Dr. Kiep cried, ‘Hail the Chancellor’ and concluded with an expression of hope that the political leadership of the present government by the Chancellor in cooperation with President Hindenburg would prove to be a blessing to the German Fatherland. (Indeed it was-KH)

“Dr. Kiep described the inner political development in Germany during the last years which led, according to him, to the logical necessity of the National Socialist Party taking over the government. He emphasized the importance of the fact that as a result of the March 5 elections, there was created for the first time in years a working majority in the German Parliament.

“Chancellor Hitler’s achievement has succeeded in obtaining for him a popularity among the German masses which no other chancellor since Bismarck had attained, said Dr. Kiep.

“More than 1,200 people attended the meeting, which was held on the occasion of Hitler’s forty-fourth birthday (April 20-KH). Shouts of ‘Hail Hitler’ frequently interrupted the session. The hall was decorated with imperial flags and on one of the walls was a large picture of Hitler hung under a gigantic Swastika flag.

“Colonel Edwin Emerson, head of the American Friends of Germany, also addressed the group.”[7]

Remarkable here from a Jewish source is the popularity of Hitler as Chancellor with both German and German-American people, the reach of the Friends of New Germany into other German-American groups and businesses—including a strong demand for its literature—and a refusal of the Friends to disband after the apparent order of the NSDAP through Spanknöbel to remove German-Americans who were not yet US citizens from the ranks. We must consider that just as the early NSDAP did not officially condone such citizen militia groups in Germany as the Stahlhelm but secretly accepted them, for political purposes it may have done the same with the Friends of New Germany in America.

Women were members of this party as well, with their own uniform. The party continued on for two more years as we have seen, until more firmly disbanded by order of Rudolf Hess in 1935.

During this time it faced harsh persecution from Jewish Democrat Rep. Samuel Dickstein of New York, who held his seat in the Legislature for 22 years. Dickstein was later identified as a Soviet spy, a paid agent of the NKVD (presurser to the KGB). In early 1934, Dickstein helped form the Special Committee on Un-American Activities Authorized to Investigate Nazi Propaganda and Certain Other Propaganda Activities, furious over “anti-semitic” groups and materials. It would eventually become the permanent Un-American Activities Committee which largely investigated Communists. Dickstein’s investigation of the American Friends of New Germany determined that it was a branch of Hitler’s NSDAP, and condemned it as such. The Committee did rule though that the Friends were acting within US law. It is a great example of chutz-pocracy that Dickstein was investigating US fascists and National Socialists as “Un-American” while taking payment from the Soviet spy agency and selling illegal US passports and immigration papers. Among the Soviets Dickstein’s secret agent name was “Crook”.[8]

Sam Dickstein, Jewish NY Congressman, persecuted U.S. NS, Soviet agent
Sam Dickstein, Jewish NY Congressman, persecuted U.S. NS, Soviet agent

The German-American Bund

German-American enthusiasm for National Socialism could not be suppressed, and by March 1936 the new organization launched in upstate Buffalo New York. Known as the German-American Bund—more properly translated as the German-American People’s Association (Amerikadeutscher Volksbund)–it raised Fritz Kuhn as its Bundesleiter. Kuhn was a native of Munich and served in World War I, gaining citizenship in the US in 1934. Kuhn’s active and even dramatic leadership unified the Bund and its ranks swelled. Officially open to only German-American citizens, about 25% of the Bund’s members were German immigrants who had not yet attained citizenship, known as Nationals. Most members were of that class National Socialism was most devoted to supporting (though all classes were considered integral to the well-being of nation and people), the working class.

Fritz Kuhn, leader of the Bund
Fritz Kuhn, leader of the Bund

Modeled after the NSDAP in Germany, the Bund held public rallies with similar pageantry and display, flying swastika flags and banners, performing the National Socialist salute, and singing German patriotic and folk songs. The Bund even established recreational camps for its members in such diverse places as Long Island, New Jersey and Wisconsin, holding meetings in Milwaukee and Chicago. It developed a program similar to the Hitler Youth, to support German-American children and youth in retaining their native language, learning German history and culture, and the National Socialist worldview (Weltanschauung).

As expected, the Bund recognized the influence of Jewish power in American, and distributed pamphlets to raise awareness. The Bund campaigned against the election of Franklin Delano Roosevelt for President in 1936, accusing him of being beholden to Jewish Bolsheviks and Communists. Honest historical accounts which emerged subsequently, such as President before Roosevelt Herbert Hoover’s great work Freedom Betrayed[9] and much else affirmed that the Bund was correct. Apparently an opinion poll taken at the time honored Fritz Kuhn as the “leading anti-Semite in America”. The Bund as an organization achieved the same distinction, since its strongest campaign emerged as a fight against Jewish Bolshevism. This resonated with many German Americans, and indeed many of all Americans, but was contradicted by anti-German primarily Jewish propaganda and the Roosevelt campaign.

That year Kuhn and other Bund leaders went to Berlin for the Olympics. Hitler invited Kuhn to the Chancellery for a reception and photographs, which provided great inspiration and validity to Kuhn and the Bund.[10]

As the Bund gained prominence, it came to the attention of the press, the law and government:

“As its extreme ideology and characteristics were brought to public attention by the press, the Bund vaulted into national prominence and acquired a host of critics. This strong anti-Nazi activity played an important role in the movement’s demise. No other foreign-inspired organization except the Communist Party aroused such resentment.”

Due to the Bund’s success, it came to the attention of the US House of Representatives, which created the House Un-American Activities Committee under Jewish Rep. Dickstein as we have seen, to persecute first the Friends, then the Bund. The US Charge D’Affairs in Berlin Prentiss Gilbert reported to the German Foreign Ministry about the actions of these German-American organizations. The German ambassador in Washington Hans Dieckhoff issued reports to Berlin expressing concern as well. The NSDAP in Germany, noting these developments against the Bund and concerned that it might strain relations with the US, once again ordered all German nationals barred from the organization.

Dismayed, Kuhn traveled to Germany and sought an appeal with Hitler’s adjutant Fritz Wiedemann, which failed. A number of sources including the New York Times (March 2 1938, p. 13) and the Bund’s own newspaper Deutscher Weckrufund Beobachter (March 10 1938, p. 1)[11] affirm that Kuhn was received with honor and respect by such great National Socialist leaders as Dr. Joseph Goebbels (Minister of Information and Mayor of Berlin) and Hermann Goering (Minister without Portfolio, commander in chief of the Luftwaffe, Plenipotentiary of the 4 Year Plan of 1936 and later Reichsmarschall). This must have been a great development for Kuhn and the Bund, and they featured it on the front page of their paper.

Thereafter the Bund changed its messaging and presentation to depict itself as more patriotic to America. It stressed the common cause of America and Germany against Communism. It continued to issue warnings and recommendations against Jews in government and positions of power, similar to the Nuremberg Laws so successful in liberating Germany, but shaped more as protective of America. It changed its songs, the uniform of its SA equivalent the Ordnungsdienst (OD), and its iconography, replacing German swastika flags for American stars and stripes. Kuhn initiated a campaign to appeal to more Americans through direct contact with Bund members, who attended gatherings of other American fascists and political groups.[12] The Bund was allied with Christians of all ethnicities, through the Christian Front, Christian Nationalist Crusade and other political and religious groups.

The Largest American National Socialist Gathering Ever: Madison Square Garden 1939

This culminated in the largest public event of American National Socialism up to that time and indeed for all time. It is difficult to obtain objective sources today reporting on this event, but possible to distill the factual details from the anti-”Nazi” propaganda that dominates the record.

On the evening of February 20, 1939, over 20,000 members and supporters attended what the Garden marquee displayed as a “Pro-America Rally”. Imbued with all the pageantry of the Nuremburg Rallies ongoing in Germany, the German-American Bund presented a combination of National Socialist and patriotic American iconography, messaging and morality. A 30 foot tall banner of George Washington dominated the stage, flanked by the Bund’s own flags showing its uplifted swastika. The date was chosen in honor of Washintgon’s birthday. Opening ceremonies included the Pledge of Allegiance and the singing of the Star Spangled Banner.[13]

Among the packed crowd were swastika armbands, posters with such slogans as “Stop Jewish Domination of Christian America”, and lines of the Bund’s SA equivalent the OD providing security. The necessity for this was apparent as 1000s of anti-Bund protesters gathered outside, and multiple attempts to enter were repelled by the 1700 police deployed by Mayor LaGuardia to maintain order and protect the right to free speech of the Bund’s event. This was the largest police force ever assembled at the time.

Many establishment accounts of the six speeches given by Bund leaders select statements out of context and are chosen to evoke a negative view. The NPR account we are considering here presents such statements as: “job-taking Jewish refugees,” “Rosenfeld” referring to the President Roosevelt as a Jewish puppet, “It has then always been very much American to protect the Aryan character of this nation,” and depiction of George Washington as “America’s first fascist.” Even these statements when placed in proper historical and racial context resound with validity among the enlightened today, as they did among the attendees in 1939 America.

A better source for full verbatim speeches given that night at the Garden is found in the booklet Free America! The German-American Bund at Madison Square Garden, February 20 1939.[14] It presents the full speech transcripts of Bund leaders National Secretary J. Wheeler-Hill, Eastern leader Rudolf Markman, Midwest leader George Froboese, Hermann Schwinn (speech inexplicably not included), Public Relations Director G. William Kunze and Bund Feuhrer Fritz Kuhn.

Markman’s speech titled “Reasons for the Bund’s Existence” declares: “The cause for the founding of our Bund was the anti-German atrocity and boycott propaganda, and the undermining of the interests of Americans of German ancestry.” This propaganda against German-Americans was generated primarily by Jews. Indeed the Bund’s event at the Garden may have been a deliberate counter to the Jewish Joint Boycott Committee’s anti-German boycott rally held at the Garden two years prior in 1937.[15] The speeches must be read in their entirety to break through the anti-Bund propaganda on the historical record, but we can feature some examples:

“Today the German American Bund has been selected by the overwhelming majority of all upright Americans of German descent to complete the task of attaining to a proper representation in the fields of American political, economic and social life…” (Markman)

“We believe that the rights of the individual must stand second to the well-being of the community and that the exigencies and requirements of such a community must be subordinated to such of the Nation! This all-embracing thought is our philosophy of a patriotic American Nationalism! As such, it creates our energetic opposition to all international Marxist and therefore Jewish preaching of Class Warfare.” (Froboese)

“Germany, without appreciable gold reserves, has succeeded in solving all her economic and social problems, without borrowing a single cent from international banking institutions since the day Adolf Hitler was elected.” (Froboese. Note: Hitler was appointed Chancellor by President von Hindenburg)

“The key to the rehabilitation of our United States as a physically, mentally and spiritually healthy member of the family of Nations lies above all in a proper application of the immutable racial laws of the Almighty, which cannot be repealed by ANY debating society of legislators!” (Kunze, “Race, Youth”)

“Let us realize that a very few Editors of great Newspapers, a few masters of the school systems of the Nation, a few censors of the screen, stage and radio, and particularly a few masters of Finance, can exercise a far greater influence over the mind of this Nation and its People than millions of workers on farms, in factories etc, can offset!” (Kunze. Obvious reference to Jews)

8 Points of the Bund Declaration:

  1. A socially just, White-Gentile ruled United States.
  2. Gentile-controlled labor unions free from Jewish, Moscow-directed domination.
  3. Gentiles in all positions of importance in government, national defense, and educational institutions.
  4. Outlawing of the Communist Party in the United States, prosecution of all known Communists for high treason.
  5. Immediate cessation of the dumping of all political “refugees” on the shores of the United States.
  6. Thorough cleaning of the Hollywood film industries of all alien, subversive activities.
  7. Cessation of all abuse of the freedom of the pulpit, press, radio and stage.
  8. A return of our Government to the policies of George Washington; Aloofness from foreign entanglements. Severance of all connections with the League of Nations. (Kuhn)

“…the Bund is open to you, provided you are sincere, of good character, of Aryan (White Gentile) Stock and an American Citizen imbued with patriotic zeal!” (Kunze closing)

Many in American today would align with the 8 Points of the Bund, only one of which needs adjustment for current circumstances.

War-Time Suppression

Though mainstream historical accounts mostly claim the Bund declined after this peak at the Garden rally due to inept leadership, corruption, infighting and disinterest, other accounts present the honest fact that the persecution and harassment of the Bund escalated, causing its dissolution. By May 1939 Fritz Kuhn was indicted by Mayor LaGuardia and DA Thomas Dewey on embezzlement charges, including stealing $15,000 of proceeds from the Garden rally. From prison Kuhn issued a claim of innocence and counter-accused Dewey of doing the bidding of Communists afraid of the Bund’s success in educating citizens. Bund newspaper Deutcher Weckruf called the charge “Jew York democracy in action”. Evidence was lacking in Kuhn’s trial, and he was convicted only of mishandling a few hundred dollars of Bund finances. He still spent 43 months in prison.[16]

A concise summary of the fate of Bund leaders comes from the Bell account, in his final footnote:

“The Federal government began an immediate round-up of leading Bund officials. Kunze was picked up in Mexico and returned to the United States. He received a 15 year prison sentence for engaging in subversive activities. George Frogoese and a few lesser known Bundists committed suicide. Twenty-four officers of the Bund were convicted of conspiracy to violate the 1940 Selective Service Act. Kunze along with other Bundists were defendants in the famous sedition case United States vs. McWilliams. Some Bundists had their naturalizations revoked and spent a few months in detention camps. Fritz Kuhn lost his citizenship and was deported to Germany after 1945.”[17]

The Un-American Activities Committee under Martin Dees and the zealous Communist Jew Dickstein increased its persecution against the Bund. In late 1941 after the events of Pearl Harbor and America’s declaration of war against Germany and Japan, the German-American People’s Association known as the Bund was finally eradicated. This ended all organized National Socialism in America to that time. Undercurrents continued, and in Part 2 we will examine the forms that emerged in the decades after World War II.


[1] Leon DeGrelle, Hitler Democrat, The Barnes Review, Washington DC, 2012

[2] Erik V Wolter with Robert J Masters, Loyalty on Trial, One American’s Battle with the FBI, iUniverse, New York, 2004, p. 63

[3] IMDb, “Fritz Kuhn Biography”

[4] Chris William, “The German American Bund: The Enemy Within”, Military Trader, August 22 2019 This page displays some of the pins, badges, belt buckles and arm bands of these American National Socialist organizations.

[5] Jim Bredemus, “American Bund, The Failure of American Nazism: The German-American Bund’s Attempt to Create an American ‘Fifth Column’”, Traces

[6] David L Hoggan, The Forced War, When Peaceful Revision Failed, Institute for Historical Review, Costa Mesa CA, 1989

[7] Jewish Daily Bulletin, “Local Nazis to Continue Propaganda; Kiep Sails After Talk to Hitlerites”, April 30, 1933, New York. Posted on Jewish Telegraphic Agency Archive

[8] Peter Duffy, “The Congressman Who Spied for Russia”, Politico, October 6 2014

[9] Herbert Hoover, Freedom Betrayed, Herbert Hoover’s Secret History of the Second World War and Its Aftermath, Hoover Institute, 2011

[10] Leland V. Bell, “The Failure of Nazism in America: The German American Bund, 1936-1941”, Political Science Quarterly Vol. 85, No. 4, Dec., 1970), pp. 585-599

[11] Ibid, p. 591, footnote 19

[12] Ibid, p. 592

[13] Sarah Kate Kramer, “When Nazis Took Manhattan”, Code Switch, Race. In Your Face, National Public Radio, February 20 2019

[14] Free America! The German-American Bund at Madison Square Garden, February 20 1939,

[15] Eli Lederhendler, American Jewry: A New History, Cambridge University Press, 2017, p. 230.

[16] Bell, p. 594

[17] Ibid, p. 599